According to the definition of the Medical Commission of the International Olympic Committee, doping is the introduction into the body of athletes in any way (in the form of injections, tablets, inhalation, etc.), pharmaceuticals, artificially increasing the performance and athletic performance. In addition, doping, and include various kinds of manipulation of the body fluids, produced with the same goals. According to this definition, a dope, a pharmacological agent may be considered only if he or its breakdown products can be determined in biological fluids (blood, urine) with a high degree of accuracy and reliability. At present, a means of doping agents include the following five groups:
1. Stimulants (central nervous system stimulants, sympathomimetics, analgesics).
2. Drugs (narcotic analgesics).
3. Anabolic steroids and other anabolic hormonal means.
By doping methods include:
1. Blood doping.
2. Pharmacological, chemical and mechanical manipulation of body fluids (masking means, adding aromatic compounds in urine samples, cateterization, the substitution of tests, suppression of urine by the kidneys).
There are 4 classes of compounds are also subject to restrictions, even when administered for therapeutic purposes:
1. Alcohol (brandy-based ethanol).
3. Means of local anesthesia.
Individual groups and types of performance enhancing drugs.
In terms of sports doping effect achieved can be divided into two main groups:
1. drugs used directly in the regular season for short-term stimulation of the health, mental and physical tone of the athlete;
2. drugs used for a long time during the training process to build muscle and to ensure adaptation to the athlete's maximum physical exertion.
The first group includes various means of stimulating the central nervous system:
a) stimulating agents (or psychomotor stimulants): amphetamine, centedrine.
(Merida), caffeine, sidnocrab, sidnofen; close to them sympathomimetics: ephedrine and its derivatives,
izadrin, berotek, salbutamol, and some nootropics: sodium oxybutiran, Phenibut;
b) analeptics corazol, kordiamin, Bemegride;
c) drugs, stimulant acting primarily on the back of the brain: strychnine. This group includes some narcotic analgesics by stimulating or sedative effect: cocaine, morphine and its derivatives, including promedol; omnopon, codeine, dionin, and fentanyl, estozin, pentazocine (Fortran), tilidin, dipidolor and others. In addition, short-term biological stimulation can be achieved by transfusion of blood (their own or someone else) immediately before the event (blood transfusion, "blood doping").
The second group consists of doping of anabolic steroids (AS) and other anabolic hormonal means. In addition there are specific types of performance enhancing drugs and other illicit pharmacological means:
a) means that reduce muscle tremors (trembling limbs), improving the coordination of movements: beta-blockers, alcohol;
b) means to facilitate the reduction of weight, speed up excretion of degradation products of anabolic steroids and other performance enhancing drugs are different diuretics (diuretics);
c) means having the ability to mask traces of anabolic steroids during special studies on the doping control - and other antibiotics probenecid (in the Soviet Union no longer available).
Of all above mentioned drugs, the most common among bodybuilders and weightlifters are anabolic steroids.
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